# Bulk

The bulk-synchronous parallel (BSP) programming model gives a powerful method for implementing and describing parallel programs. Bulk is a novel interface for writing BSP programs in the C++ programming language that leverages modern C++ features to allow for the implementation of safe and generic parallel algorithms for shared-memory, distributed-memory, and hybrid systems. This interface targets the next generation of BSP programmers who want to write fast, safe, clear and portable parallel programs.

The bulk synchronous parallel (BSP) programming model, is a way of writing parallel and distributed programs. BSP is the underlying model for Bulk. Instead of communicating between processors (or nodes, or cores) asynchronously, all communication is staged and resolved at fixed synchronization points. These synchronizations delimit so-called supersteps. This way of structuring parallel programs has a number of advantages:

• The resulting programs are structured, easy to understand and maintain, and their performance and correctness can be reasoned about.
• Data races are eliminated almost by construction, because of simple rules which can be enforced at runtime.
• Scalability is straightforward to obtain. Programs are written in a SPMD fashion.
• There are only two types of communication mechanisms, message passing and named communication (through distributed variables). This makes BSP based libraries very economic: you can accomplish a lot with very little.
• It has a gentle learning curve. It is easy to write correct BSP programs, while it is notoriously hard to write correct asynchronous parallel programs.

## Examples

Hello world!

bulk::thread::environment env;
env.spawn(env.available_processors(), [](auto& world) {
auto s = world.rank();
auto p = world.active_processors();

world.log("Hello world from processor %d / %d!", s, p);
});


Distributed variables are the bread and butter of communication in Bulk.

auto a = bulk::var<int>(world);
a(world.next_rank()) = s;
world.sync();
// ... a is now updated

auto b = a(world.next_rank()).get();
world.sync();
// ... b.value() is now available


Coarrays are convenient distributed arrays.

auto xs = bulk::coarray<int>(world, 10);
xs(world.next_rank())[3] = s;


Message passing can be used for more flexible communication.

auto q = bulk::queue<int, float>(world);
for (int t = 0; t < p; ++t) {
q(t).send(s, 3.1415f);  // send (s, pi) to processor t
}
world.sync();

// messages are now available in q
for (auto [tag, content] : q) {
world.log("%d got sent %d, %f\n", s, tag, content);
}


## Building

Bulk requires Linux and an up-to-date compiler, that supports C++17, e.g. GCC >= 7.0, or Clang >= 4.0.

### Backends

Bulk supports a number of different backends, allowing the programs to run in parallel using:

• thread for multi-core systems using standard C++ <thread> threading support
• mpi for distributed environments using MPI

There is also a special legacy backend available for the Epiphany coprocessor, which can be found in the epiphany branch. This branch has a modified version of Bulk to support portability between MPI, <thread> and the Epiphany coprocessor. See backends/epiphany/README.md for more details.

### Examples

The examples in the examples directory work for every backend. To build them, do the following. The backends (e.g. thread, mpi) are built optionally, just remove or add the option if you do not require them.

mkdir build
cd build
cmake ..


The examples will be compiled in the bin/{backend} directory, prepended with the backend name, i.e. to run the hello example with the thread backend:

./bin/thread/thread_hello


### Developing on top of Bulk

The easiest way to get started using Bulk is to download the source code from GitHub. If you use Bulk in a project we suggest to add Bulk as a submodule:

git submodule add https://www.github.com/jwbuurlage/bulk ext/bulk
git submodule update --init


If you use CMake for your project, adding Bulk as a dependency is straightforward. For this, you can use the bulk and bulk_[backend] targets. For example, if your CMake target is called your_program and it uses Bulk with the thread backend, you can use the following:

add_subdirectory("ext/bulk")


If you have used Bulk for a scientific publication, we would appreciate citations to the following paper:

Buurlage JW., Bannink T., Bisseling R.H. (2018) Bulk: A Modern C++ Interface for Bulk-Synchronous Parallel Programs. In: Aldinucci M., Padovani L., Torquati M. (eds) Euro-Par 2018: Parallel Processing. Euro-Par 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11014. Springer, Cham

## Authors

Bulk is developed at Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in Amsterdam by:

• Jan-Willem Buurlage (@jwbuurlage)
• Tom Bannink (@tombana)

## Contributing

We welcome contributions. Please submit pull requests against the develop branch.

If you have any issues, questions, or remarks, then please open an issue on GitHub.